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How to Keep Your Gums and Teeth Healthy

Brushing and flossing your teeth isn't hard to do. And doing both correctly can help prevent gum disease and tooth loss.

Gum disease is caused by bacteria found in plaque and tartar. Plaque is a sticky film that forms on the teeth. It is mostly made up of bacteria, mucus, food, and other particles. When plaque isn't removed, it hardens into tartar, which gives a home to bacteria, according to the American Dental Association (ADA). Bacteria in plaque and tartar cause inflammation of the gums, called gingivitis. Tartar can only be removed by a dental hygienist or dentist. 

Gum disease has 3 stages:

  • Gingivitis. In this early stage there are red, swollen, tender gums that bleed easily. If caught early, the condition can often be reversed on its own with correct brushing and flossing.

  • Mild to moderate periodontitis. The next stage has increased inflammation and bleeding around the tooth. It happens when bacterial poisons in plaque and your own body's defenses start to break down the gum attachment to the tooth. This causes the gums to pull away from the teeth and form pockets of infected material. Early bone loss around the teeth may be evident. Treatment at this stage is vital to prevent more bone loss and teeth from getting loose.  

  • Advanced periodontitis. This stage shows gum pockets that have gotten deeper and heavy destruction of bone that holds teeth in place. At this stage, teeth may become so loose that they need to be removed if periodontal treatment doesn't restore bone support.

Symptoms of periodontal disease often appear when the condition is advanced. Symptoms are:

  • Bad breath that lasts

  • Red, swollen, sore gums

  • Gums that bleed easily

  • Gums that pull away from the teeth (receding gums)

  • Pain when chewing

  • Loose or sensitive teeth

Risk factors

These factors put a person at more risk for developing gum disease:

  • Smoking or using chewing tobacco

  • Hormonal changes related to pregnancy and menopause

  • Diabetes

  • Certain medicines that reduce saliva

  • Heredity


Good oral hygiene, such as brushing and flossing at least twice every day, can help prevent gum infections, cavities, and tooth loss. Having your teeth cleaned and checked by a dentist or dental hygienist at least once a year also is important, the ADA says. No matter how well you brush, tartar and plaque can still build up and cause gum problems.

To brush correctly:

  • Brush in the morning and before going to sleep.

  • Use a soft-bristled brush and toothpaste that contains fluoride. If you can afford the cost, buy and use an electric toothbrush.

  • Place your toothbrush at a 45° angle against your gums and brush each tooth 15 to 20 times.

  • Move the brush gently, using short strokes. Don't scrub.

  • Brush the outer tooth surfaces using short, back-and-forth strokes.

  • Brush the inner upper front teeth by brushing vertically against them using short, downward strokes. Use short, upward strokes for lower inside teeth.

  • Brush the chewing surfaces of the teeth with short, back-and-forth strokes. Replace your toothbrush when it's worn or frayed about every 3 or 4 months, experts say. You should also get a new toothbrush after you have had a cold, strep throat, or similar illness.

  • Don't cover your toothbrush or store it in a closed container. This can encourage growth of microorganisms. 

Floss with care

Flossing helps to remove plaque and food particles that are stuck between your teeth and under your gums. To floss correctly:

  • Cut off about 18 inches of floss and hold it tightly between your thumbs and forefingers. Place it between your teeth and gently slide it up and down. 

  • When the floss reaches the gum line, curve it around 1 tooth in a C shape. Gently rub the side of the tooth, moving the floss with up-and-down motions, making sure to go below the gumline. Repeat this method on the rest of your teeth. Remember to floss the back side of your back teeth.

Watch what you eat

The foods you eat help lead to tooth decay when they combine with bacteria in your mouth. To protect your teeth:

  • Have plenty of calcium-rich foods, such as milk, yogurt, cheese, canned fish, almonds, beans, green leafy vegetables, and calcium-fortified orange juice. Calcium maintains the bone the tooth roots are embedded in. This is particularly important for older adults and for children during development of both baby and adult teeth.

  • Limit sugary foods and drinks. Stay away from sticky sweets, such as soft candies, toffees, taffies, and pastries. If you eat sweets, rinse your mouth with water afterward. Or brush your teeth if you have a chance.

  • If you chew gum, chew sugar-free brands.

Online Medical Reviewer: Jessica Gotwals RN BSN MPH
Online Medical Reviewer: Michael Kapner MD
Online Medical Reviewer: Rita Sather RN
Date Last Reviewed: 7/1/2023
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